Ernst Adolf Gustav Gottfried von Strümpell (1853–1925) was a German neurologist. He received the medical degree from the University of Leipzig in 1875. The following year he was appointed an assistant at the Leipzig medical clinic and in 1883 succeeded Erb as director of the polyclinic in Leipzig with Paul Julius Möbius (1853-1907) as his assistant. In 1886 Strümpell left Leipzig to become professor of medicine and director of the medical clinic in Erlangen, succeeding Wilhelm Olivier Leube (1842-1922). He remained in Erlangen until 1903, when he moved to the University of Breslau; in 1910 he returned to Leipzig.
He was the author of the main textbook on internal medicine of that period in Germany, Lehrbuch der speziellen Pathologie und Therapie der inneren Krankheiten (1884). Strümpell made important contributions to numerous fields of medicine, particularly to neuropathology, making him to be ranked among the founders of neurology as a clinical educational discipline in Germany. His research concerned tabes dorsalis, systemic diseases of the spinal cord, infantile paralysis, acromegalia, and progressive muscular atrophy. Strümpell was editor and founder (with Erb, Schultze and Lichtheim) of the journal Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde. He is also credited with identifying and diagnosing an arthritic spinal deformity that was to become known as the Marie–Strümpell disease (Ankylosing spondylitis). Together with French physician Maurice Lorrain, the eponymous Strümpell–Lorrain disease (Hereditary spastic paraplegia) is named. In addition he is recalled by the eponyms Strümpell-Leichtenstern encephalitis and some neurological signs.