XVII century. Optical microscope

The original inventor of optical microscope isn’t easy to identify; probably the microscope appeared in the Netherlands in XVI century.

Galileo Galilei during XVII century developed a compound microscope with a convex and a concave lens.

Robert Hooke wrote Micrographia, where he describes his observations (from a fly’s eye to plant cells) through various lenses. He coined the term “cell”.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek used his knowledge in grinding lenses to achieve a greater magnification. Thanks to this advancement, he could observe bacteria. He is considered the first microbiologist.

Marcello Malpighi began the analysis of biological structures through the microscope: because of this work, many microscopic anatomical structures are named after Malpighi, including a skin layer (Malpighi layer) and two different Malpighian corpuscles in the kidneys and the spleen, as well as the Malpighian tubules in the excretory system of insects.

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Portrait of Galileo Galilei (by Justus Sustermans)

Portrait of Galileo Galilei (by Justus Sustermans)

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